The man who wanted to know everything



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29/03/05


The man who wanted to know everything
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, was the world’s greatest designer. He left over 7,000 pages of notes and drawings. You need a mirror to read many of Leonardo’s notes because he wrote them in reverse, starting at the right side of the page and moving to the left.

Knowledge was Leonardo’s passion. That universal man -- symbol of his time and anticipator of ours -- had a remarkable imagination and curiosity. His ideas for all kinds of inventions were well ahead of his time: he anticipated the future with projects of submarines, war tanks, machine guns, parachutes and flying machines.

One of Leonardo’s projects was to create a flying machine. His dream was to fly like a bird. He observed the flight of birds, studying the anatomy of their wings and the function of their feathers. After watching birds’ flight, Leonardo concluded that, in the absence of an engine -- not invented until centuries later -- the best prospect of human flight was fixed-wing gliding. He then designed a machine similar to a modern hang-glider. It had a wooden frame and two huge wings, similar to a bat’s wings, which were worked by the pilot’s hands and feet. The pilot lay down in the frame of the machine and pumped pedals to move its wings. Leonardo also anticipated the invention of the helicopter and the parachute, which shows the great man’s fascination with flight.

(Adapted from Leonardo da Vinci, Francesca Romei, Simon & Schuster, 1994)


I. Responda em português (0.3 - 1.5):

1. De todas as obras artísticas e projetos científicos de Leonardo da Vinci, qual é o destacado no texto?


2. Qual era o sonho de Leonardo de acordo com o texto?
3. O que é necessário para se ler muitos dos textos escritos por Leonardo? Por quê?
4. Qual é o invento moderno parecido com a máquina de voar idealizada por Leonardo da Vinci?
5. Escreva na linha abaixo um projeto de invento de Leonardo que não foi citado no texto : o submarino, o pára-quedas, o avião, a metralhadora.


II. Write the opposites. ( You must find the opposites in the text above!) (0.2 - 1.0)

1. ordinary - ______________

2. less than - ______________

3. different from - ________________

4. ancient - _____________

5. tiny - ________________


III. Complete the sentences with the correct idiomatic expression: (0.3 - 1.5)

1. Dresses like these used to be very fashionable. They used to be ______________.



all the level the pros and cons all the rage

2. Their ways of life are _____________________.



at first hand on the loose worlds apart

3. The rent collector is ____________________ payment again.



coming of age on the level pressing for

4. They described all the facts ____________________.



on the age the be-all and end-all in the raw

5. Before we can come to a decision, we shall need to hear all _________________ of the matter.



under the sun the pros and cons not for the world
IV. Rewrite the sentences placing the adverbs in the correct position. (0.3 - 3.0)

(Obs.: não utilizar inversion!)

1. He had finished his breakfast when the servant came rushing in. (hardly)

2. She can go to the cinema. (usually)

3. I have seen him acting like that. (never)

4. She understands the problem we have. (never)

5. They played football. (yesterday, enthusiastically, in the rain)

6. The food was served. (beautifully)

7. They found the newspaper. (last Tuesday, at 3 pm)

8. Mary goes. (on Mondays, to school, seldom, by car)
9. She looked after the little baby. (carelessly)
10. She works. (in a shooping center, in an office, from 9 am to 5 pm, in São Paulo)
V. Rewrite the sentences. Start them with the adverbs in bold. (0.3 - 1.5)

1. You knew little of what they were talking about.

2. There has rarely been such a gathering of students near the school.

3. He knows even less of what the ministers are thinking.

4. You could nowhere find it.

5. I only learnt the dreadful news today.


VI. Write in Portuguese. (0.3 - 1.5)

1. She didn’t grasp the main idea.

2. It is worth buying.

3. Some industries produce hazardous waste.



4. You have to plug the microwave into the cigarette lighter.

5. They had hardly finished the composition when he came in.


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